English Tenses

Tenses ini digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang bersifat tetap, kebiasaan atau kebenaran yang hakiki. Karena sering menyangkut kejadian diwaktu lamapu, sekarang dan akan datang, Tenses ini paling sedikit mempunyai keterangan waktu tertentu. (S + V1)
Example : he is not handsome
Tenses ini digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu tindakan yang benar-benar sedang dilakukan saat ini. Kalimat-kalimat dalam Tenses ini lebih sering dipakai dari pada present Tenses. (S + is/am/are + V-ing)
example : She is cooking in the kitchen.
Tenses ini menunjukkan suatu kejadian yang sudah dikerjakan (baru selesai). (S + have,has +V3)
Example : they have met me.

D. Present Perfect Continuous TenseTenses ini digunakan untuk menjelaskan satu kejadian yang baru saja berlangsung dan berlanjut. (S + have,has + been + V-ing)

Example : They have been playing football

E. Simple Past Tense

Tenses ini dipakai untuk membicarakan tentang satu perbuatan yang terjadi di masa lalu (sudah lewat). (S + V2)

Example : They were student last year

F, Past Continuous Tense

Tense ini menggambarkan suatu kejadian pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.(S + was,were + V-ing)

Example : andira was singing a song loudly

G. Past Perfect Tense

Tense ini mengekspresikan tindakan di masa lampau sebelum tindakan lain terjadi, namun kejadiannya di masa lampau. (S + had + V3)

Example : arya had played a game

H. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Tense ini mengekspresikan tindakan-tindakan yang lebih lama dan telah selesai pada waktu tertentu dimasa lalu.  (S + had + been + V-ing)

Example : She had been helping me when they went to school

I. Simple Future Tense

Tense ini di pakai untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang akan dilakukan pada waktu yang akan datang. (S + will + V1)

Example : They will sleep in the bad

J. Future Continuous Tense

Tense ini  dapat menggambarkan suatu kondisi yang akan terjadi di waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang. (S + will + be + V-ing)

Example : He will be coming on time

K. Future Perfect Tense

Tense ini dipakai untuk menggambarkan suatu kegiatan yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang . (S + will + have + V3)

Example : We will have gone to the school

L. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Tense ini digunakan utuk membicarakan tentang suatu kejadian yang panjang sebelum beberapa saat di masa yang akan datang dan terus berlangsung.  (S + will + have + been + V-ing)

Example : We will have been studying in the class

M. Past Future Tense

Tense ini untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang sudah terjadi dimasa lampau. (S + would + V1)

Example : They would travel to London

N. Past Future Continuous Tense

Tense ini di pakai  untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang sedang terjadi di waktu lampau atau masa lalu. (S + would + be + V-ing)

Example : he would be living in Europe

O. Past Future Perfect Tense

Tense ini digunakan   untuk menyataka suatu  perbuatan yang telah terjadi  dan akan terjadi. (S + would + have + V3)

Example : He would have finished to studied if he had not been lazy

P. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu  peristiwa yang akan sedang terjadi di waktu lampau dan terus terjadi. (S + would + have + been + V1 + ing)

Example : They would have been working all day

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The Structure of a Sentence

Remember that every clause is, in a sense, a miniature sentence. A simple sentences contains only a single clause, while a compound sentence, a complex sentence, or a compound-complex sentence contains at least two clauses.

The Simple Sentence

The most basic type of sentence is the simple sentence, which contains only one clause. A simple sentence can be as short as one word:

Run!

Usually, however, the sentence has a subject as well as a predicate and both the subject and the predicate may have modifiers. All of the following are simple sentences, because each contains only one clause:

Melt!
Ice melts.
The ice melts quickly.
The ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.
Lying exposed without its blanket of snow, the ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.

As you can see, a simple sentence can be quite long — it is a mistake to think that you can tell a simple sentence from a compound sentence or a complex sentence simply by its length.

The most natural sentence structure is the simple sentence: it is the first kind which children learn to speak, and it remains by far the most common sentence in the spoken language of people of all ages. In written work, simple sentences can be very effective for grabbing a reader’s attention or for summing up an argument, but you have to use them with care: too many simple sentences can make your writing seem childish.

When you do use simple sentences, you should add transitional phrases to connect them to the surrounding sentences.

The Compound Sentence

A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (or simple sentences) joined by co-ordinating conjunctions like “and,” “but,” and “or”:

Simple
Canada is a rich country.
Simple
Still, it has many poor people.
Compound
Canada is a rich country, but still it has many poor people.

Compound sentences are very natural for English speakers — small children learn to use them early on to connect their ideas and to avoid pausing (and allowing an adult to interrupt):

Today at school Mr. Moore brought in his pet rabbit, and he showed it to the class, and I got to pet it, and Kate held it, and we coloured pictures of it, and it ate part of my carrot at lunch, and …

Of course, this is an extreme example, but if you over-use compound sentences in written work, your writing might seem immature.

A compound sentence is most effective when you use it to create a sense of balance or contrast between two (or more) equally-important pieces of information:

Montéal has better clubs, but Toronto has better cinemas.

Special Cases of Compound Sentences

There are two special types of compound sentences which you might want to note. First, rather than joining two simple sentences together, a co-ordinating conjunction sometimes joins two complex sentences, or one simple sentence and one complex sentence. In this case, the sentence is called a compound-complex sentence:

compound-complex
The package arrived in the morning, but the courier left before I could check the contents.

The second special case involves punctuation. It is possible to join two originally separate sentences into a compound sentence using a semicolon instead of a co-ordinating conjunction:

Sir John A. Macdonald had a serious drinking problem; when sober, however, he could be a formidable foe in the House of Commons.

Usually, a conjunctive adverb like “however” or “consequently” will appear near the beginning of the second part, but it is not required:

The sun rises in the east; it sets in the west.

The Complex Sentence

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentence contains clauses which are not equal. Consider the following examples:

Simple
My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.
Compound
My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.
Complex
Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.

In the first example, there are two separate simple sentences: “My friend invited me to a party” and “I do not want to go.” The second example joins them together into a single sentence with the co-ordinating conjunction “but,” but both parts could still stand as independent sentences — they are entirely equal, and the reader cannot tell which is most important. In the third example, however, the sentence has changed quite a bit: the first clause, “Although my friend invited me to a party,” has become incomplete, or a dependent clause.

A complex sentence is very different from a simple sentence or a compound sentence because it makes clear which ideas are most important. When you write

My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.

or even

My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.

The reader will have trouble knowing which piece of information is most important to you. When you write the subordinating conjunction “although” at the beginning of the first clause, however, you make it clear that the fact that your friend invited you is less important than, or subordinate, to the fact that you do not want to go.